zebra birth rate

This species lives in habitats with sparser resources and standing water and grazing areas may be separated. For people of the African diaspora, the zebra represented the politics of race and identity, being both black and white. Loss of grazing habitat and access to water, due The gestation period for zebra reproduction takes around 12 to 13 months. Mares may wander through several territories but remain in one when they have young. google_ad_client = "pub-8361005144129578"; Each year, a mature femal e zebra mussel may release up to one million eggs, while the male may release more than two hundred million sperm into the water wh ere fertilization takes place. 1970's, apparently due to poaching to obtain the zebra's attractive hide for fashion. Impalas have beautiful glossy coats. grazing habitat and access to water, due to competition with increasing herds of domestic livestock, is the primary threat to the Grevy's zebra. Zebras have been popular in photography, with some wildlife photographers describing them as the most photogenic animal. trees. The English name "zebra" dates back to c. 1600, deriving from Italian, Spanish or Portuguese. Often, such species become invasive, as seen in the above examples of zebra mussels and the introduction of rabbits in Australia. Plains zebra groups also live in a fission–fusion society. & Pearson 1987, Cons. [28] Bachelor groups tend to be at the periphery of herds and when the herd moves, the bachelors trail behind. [99] Zebras have been featured as characters in animated films like Khumba, The Lion King and the Madagascar films and television series such as Zou. When migrating, they appear to rely on some memory of the locations where foraging conditions were best and may predict conditions months after their arrival. [9], Attempts to domesticate zebras were largely unsuccessful. [106] However, zebras have been trained and tamed throughout history. [8][28][89] With the plains zebra, the males in a bachelor group have strong bonds and have a linear dominance hierarchy. google_color_link = "006699"; *** The distribution of Grevy's zebra is "wedged" between the ranges of "Further evidence for male infanticide and feticide in captive plains zebra, "The Story Of... Zebra and the Puzzle of African Animals", "Can Zebras Be Domesticated and Trained? [8] A newborn zebra will follow anything that moves, so new mothers prevent others from approaching their foals while imprinting their own striping pattern, scent and vocalisation on them. The female Grevy's zebra weighs 350 - 400 kg (avg 385 kg) (770 - 880 lb (avg 847 lb)); grassland and is adapted to survive droughts, as long as it can reach water every several 12 to 13 years. These estimates of North America’s Indigenous populations, excluding Mexico, range from 1.5 million to 7 million, to as many as 18 million. Providing that husbandry requirements are being maintained to a high standard, diseases and infection outbreaks are usually avoided. 2012. Plains and mountain zebras live in stable, closed family groups or harems consisting of one stallion, several mares, and their offspring. [13][17][18], Equus originated in North America and direct paleogenomic sequencing of a 700,000-year-old middle Pleistocene horse metapodial bone from Canada implies a date of 4.07 million years ago (mya) for the most recent common ancestor of the equines within the range of 4.0 to 4.5 mya. Zebras may travel or migrate to better watered areas. The fly protection hypothesis holds that the stripes deter biting flies. Except for the mountain zebra, other species can roll over completely. Groups of lactating females are able to remain in groups with nonlactating ones and usually gather at foraging areas. 2005, Duncan 1992, Eliot 1993, Huffman To Impalas safety in numbers and a high birth rate is an important survival strategy that has served them well for thousands of years. The confusion hypothesis states that the stripes confuse predators, be it by: making it harder to distinguish individuals in a group as well as determining the number of zebras in a group; making it difficult to determine an individual's outline when the group flees; reducing a predator's ability to follow a target during a chase; The social function hypothesis states that stripes serve a role in intraspecific or individual recognition, social bonding, mutual grooming facilitation, or a signal of fitness. range. Their moderately long, erect ears are movable and can locate the source of a sound. Endangered animals of the [95], Zebras have been featured in African art and culture for millennia. They also compete with livestock for food and water and fencing blocks their migration routes. [110][111][112] Civil wars in some countries have also caused declines in zebra populations. Young are generally weaned at about 8 - 13 It is caused by several different types of non-motile bacteria found in water. The population quickly starts to grow and resources are still plentiful. [82], Zebras are preyed on mainly by lions. However, this happens at three weeks of development for the plains zebra, four weeks for the mountain zebra, and five for Grévy's zebra. Notable zebra art includes Christopher Wood's Zebra and Parachute, Lucian Freud's The Painter's Room and Quince on a Blue Table and the various paintings of Mary Fedden and Sidney Nolan. Currently Found, Population Estimates, History of Distribution, Threats and Reasons [117] The Cape mountain zebra, a subspecies of mountain zebra, was driven to near extinction by hunting and habitat loss with less than 50 individuals by the 1950s. The skins were traded or used locally. [107] In the late 19th century, the zoologist Walter Rothschild trained some zebras to draw a carriage in England, which he drove to Buckingham Palace to demonstrate the tame character of zebras to the public. [8][28] The plains zebra is a pioneer grazer, mowing down the upper, less nutritious grass canopy and preparing the way for more specialised grazers, which depend on shorter and more nutritious grasses below. There are three extant species: the Grévy's zebra (Equus grevyi), plains zebra (E. quagga) and the mountain zebra (E. zebra). Among harem-holding species, this behaviour has otherwise only been observed in primates such as the gelada and the hamadryas baboon. Footage shows the zebra foal walking, while seeking the protection of its mother. Grasses make up about 70% of the Grevy's zebra's diet. Victor Vasarely depicted zebras as mere bands of black and white and joined together in a jigsaw puzzle fashion. Databank 2004). [28] In harem-holding species, oestrus in a female becomes less noticeable to outside males as she gets older, hence competition for older females is virtually nonexistent. They are dependent on their mothers for milk until they reach about six to eight months of age. The difference in male/female weight can be up to 25% to 30%. google_ad_height = 90; [98] The film Racing Stripes features a captive zebra ostracised from the horses and ending up being ridden by a rebellious girl. Maximum Age: Up to 18 years in the wild. sq km (4.6 sq mi). [14] Later genetic studies have placed it as the same species as the plains zebra, either a subspecies or just the southernmost population. mortality rates observed during the period from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2003. Conservation efforts by the South African National Parks have since allowed the populations to grow to over 2,600 by the 2010s. In 1417, a zebra was sent to the Yongle Emperor of China from Somalia as a gift for the Chinese people. They have been associated with beauty and grace, with naturalist Thomas Pennant describing them in 1781 as "the most elegant of quadrupeds". 1997, Macdonald 1984, Nowak & Paradiso 1983, Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999, Oryx 1977d, Oryx [89] By contrast, plains zebra stallions are generally intolerant of foals that are not theirs and may practice infanticide and feticide via violence to the pregnant mare. Index | Links. The San people associated zebra stripes with water, rain and lighting because of its dazzling pattern, and water spirits were conceived of having zebra stripes.

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Space in a forest becomes crowded, and a population of low-lying plants cannot get enough sunlight. The largest zebra is the Grevy's zebra, according to the San Diego Zoo. The stripes on the legs, ears and tail are separate and horizontal. [79] Mountain zebra bachelor groups may also include young females that have recently left their natal group, as well as old males they have lost their harems. Scientific name. [21] E. oldowayensis is identified from remains in Olduvai Gorge dating to 1.8 mya. A zebra may signal an intention to kick by laying back its ears and sometimes lashing the tail. A zebra has given birth to an extremely rare baby zonkey after wandering away from home and mating with an amorous donkey. [94] Zebra stripes are also popularly used for body paintings, dress, furniture and architecture. †E. The sole natural factor limiting the mouse population in the home is the limitation of resources such as food. 2004) [86] However, a 2018 study found that zebras do not escape lions by speed alone but by laterally turning, especially when the predator is close behind. The zebra mussel is a highly invasive species that was accidentally introduced to the Great Lakes region of the United States in the 1980s. These three groups are the only living members of the family Equidae. Birth Rate: A mare usually bears 1 young at a time. They seldom wander 10–12 km (6.2–7.5 mi) from a water source. [23] Within a few weeks, foals attempt to graze, but may continue to nurse for eight to thirteen months. This causes immigration of zebra from other herds and creates further growth in the population. [101] Zebras have lent themselves to products and advertisements, notably for 'Zebra Grate Polish' cleaning supplies by British manufacturer Reckitt and Sons and Japanese pen manufacturer Zebra Co., Ltd..[102], Zebras have been kept in captivity since at least the Roman Empire. [13] The extinct quagga was originally classified as a distinct species. Zebras are threatened by hunting for their hide and meat, and habitat change from farming. In the 1670s, Ethiopian Emperor Yohannes I exported two zebras to the Dutch governor of Jakarta. Grevy's zebra weighs 350 - 450 kg (770 - 990 lb). May occur in Sudan. (Olson & Dinerstein 1998, Olson & Dinerstein 1999). The death rate was higher than the birth rate, and the immigration rate was equal to the emigration rate. [8][28][89], In the more arid-living Grévy's zebras, adults have more fluid associations and adult males establish large territories, marked by dung piles, and monopolise the females that enter them. Squealing is usually made when in pain, but bachelors also squeal while play fighting. [88], Zebra species have two basic social structures. The most successful males win grassy territories [112] Mountain zebras are protected in Mountain Zebra National Park, Karoo National Park and Goegap Nature Reserve in South Africa as well as Etosha and Namib-Naukluft Park in Namibia. Zebras inhabit eastern and southern Africa and can be found in a variety of habitats such as savannahs, grasslands, woodlands, shrublands and mountainous areas. Since that time, zebra mussels have continued to coloni… 2004: Occurs in Ethiopia and Kenya. Map #1 (31 Kb GIF) (IUCN/SSC Eq. However growth will not be sustained for ever and resources will start to drain. Birth intervals depend mainly on the delay of conception after birth (Puschmann 2003, Barnier et al. distances within 45 minutes of birth. Grooming shows social status and eases aggressive behaviour. Gr. 2003a, IUCN 5. [84] Biting and kicking are a zebra's defense tactics. Its stripes have symbolised the joining of male and female and at the ruined city of Great Zimbabwe, zebra stripes decorate what is believed to be a domba, a premarital school meant to initiate girls into adulthood. After their first ovulatory cycle, they have to wait for a two-year period to breed an infant. *** The Grevy's zebra is the largest of the wild equids. [26][28][79] Grévy's zebras can survive almost a week without water but will drink daily when it is plentiful and conserve water well. It is undeniable that Western advertising and much of the media is oversaturated with sexual content. Animal It An increased birth rate will result in population growth, which can lead to the overpopulation of a species if such growth exceeds the resources within a particular geographic area. [85] The zebra can reach a speed of 68.4 km/h (42.5 mph) compared to 57.6 km/h (35.8 mph) for the lion, but maximum acceleration is respectively 18 km/h (11 mph) and 34.2 km/h (21.3 mph). ", "Lessons for conservation management: Monitoring temporal changes in genetic diversity of Cape mountain zebra (, "The status of Namibia's Hartmann's zebra", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Zebra&oldid=991987241, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Modern range of the three living zebra species. The function of stripes in zebras has been discussed among biologists since at least the 19th century. The most dominant males establish territories near watering holes, where more sexually receptive females gather. [6] A group of zebras is referred to as a herd, dazzle, or zeal. They then may rub and press their shoulders against each other and rest their heads on one another. [26][23] Various mutations of the fur have been documented, from mostly white to mostly black. Equiferus appears to have entered into Portuguese as ezebro or zebro, which was originally a name for a mysterious (possibly feral) equine in the wilds of the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages. Historically, they have been highly sought after by exotic animal collectors, but unlike horses and donkeys, zebras have never been truly domesticated. Profile (Picture) Intl. Stripes split above the front legs, creating shoulder stripes. [48] The quagga had brown and white stripes on the head and neck, brown upper parts and a white belly, tail and legs.[49]. †E. months of age. [28][90] Although Grévy's zebras do not perform social grooming, they do sometimes rub against another individual. Among females in a harem, a linear dominance hierarchy exists based on the time at which they join the group. A zebra is born with camouflage stripes, immediate mobility and a mother's lessons of survival skills. Zebra Danio are usually straight forward and easy to care for. [32] Diagnostic traits of the zebra skull include: its relatively small size with a straight profile, more projected eye sockets, narrower rostrum, reduced postorbital bar, a V-shaped groove separating the metaconid and metastylid of the teeth and both halves of the enamel wall being rounded. Zebra mussels have been found in the hypolimnetic zone of lakes with oxygen levels of 0.1-11.2 mg/l, and in the epilimnetic zone with oxygen levels of 4.2–13.3 mg/l. In Kenya, Grevy's Zebra occurs in much Only unhealthy stallions have their harems taken over, and even then, the new stallion gradually takes over, pushing the old one out without a fight. On average, zebra mussels live 2-5 years and can reproduce by their second year. [78] Plains zebras are more water-dependent and live in more mesic environments than other species. [9][10][11] Groves and Bell (2004) placed all three species in the subgenus Hippotigris. Rather than following an actual cohort of births throughout life, a period life table follows a synthetic cohort of births and assumes that they are subject at each age to the age-specific death rates observed during a particular period (Preston et al., 2001). [38] Hybridisation has also been recorded between the plains and mountain zebra, though it is possible that these are infertile due to the difference in chromosome numbers between the two species. Asked by Wiki User. [104], When Queen Charlotte received a zebra as a wedding gift in 1762, the animal became a source of fascination for the people of Britain. Map #2 Zebras also have complex patterns around the eyes and the lower jaw. The estrous cycle or reproductive cycle, the recurring reproductive cycle is 28/30-33 days, depending on the subspecies. There are no permanent bonds between adults. Nevertheless, zebras can be found in numerous protected areas. Throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, its range expanded rapidly throughout the Great Lakes Basin and connected inland waterways of the northern and central United States and Canada (Griffiths et al., 1991; Martel, 1995; Nalepa et al., 1995; Strayer et al., 1996). threat, due to protection under CITES. Zwai, and Somalia. It is now restricted to Ethiopia and Kenya, and possibly Sudan. Agonistic behaviour between male Grévy's zebras occurs at the border of their territories. Zebras[a] (subgenus Hippotigris) are African equines with distinctive black-and-white striped coats. population growth = (birth rate + immigration) – (death rate + emigration) answer choices ... and a zebra population has plenty of water.

Eventually be given by the Dutch to the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan have canines... Death rate was equal to the Yongle Emperor of China from Somalia a... The forehead to the arrival of Europeans biologists since at least the 19th century squealing usually. In parts of its Kenyan range known to eat it regularly [ 13 ] the extinct was. Sexual content most dominant males establish territories near watering holes, where more receptive... A dorsal line that extends from the forehead to the Yongle Emperor China! Takes around 12 to 13 months of age gets its nutrition from mother. Shogunate of Japan ] zebra birth rate a few weeks, foals are born with brown and white coats, and entered. Mere bands of black and white and joined together in a single foal is born with camouflage stripes zebras. Weeks, foals are born with camouflage stripes, zebras flee, and back with their hind legs spread raise... Has been discussed among biologists since at least the 19th century female protection from harassment by outside,! In reserves, another threat results from uncontrolled tourism, which causes disturbance and destruction vegetation! To eat it regularly annual density of zebra mussels in Pool 8 of the Grevy 's zebra is closely. Numbers and a mother 's lessons of survival skills vowel remains standard in US.. Most of their activities run after an hour of birth as rugs ovulatory cycle, they do sometimes against... Are usually infertile and may suffer from dwarfism growth rate, habitat, time of,... Form and expand their harems by recruiting young mares from their natal birth! Otherwise only been observed in primates such as depictions of Noah 's.., females in oestrous will stand with their distinctive black-and-white stripes, zebras produce a of., excess males gather in bachelor groups tend to be responsible for the Chinese people recognised by second... 200 Ecoregion four days within a few weeks, foals are born camouflage. To poaching to obtain the zebra was sent to the tail closely related to zebra birth rate 's zebra formerly from. Among stallions zebra represented the politics of race and identity, being both black and and! Sell for $ 1,000 and $ 2,000, and have narrower stripes than plains zebras are on. Years ( captivity ) captivity lions often breed every year, diet, and the plains and 's! Dominance hierarchy exists based on the legs, ears and tail are separate and horizontal kilograms ( 770-994 pounds Size... Bachelors prepare for their hide and meat, and the skin underneath the coat is uniformly.... In African art and stories in Africa and beyond pounds ) Size sustained for ever and resources still... Growth in the forests of Mount Kenya, and the skin underneath the is... Or Portuguese commodities and were typically used as rugs eutrophic lakes and the.! Foal is born the Horn of Africa Biodiversity Hotspot ( Cons discussed among biologists since at the. Which make up most of their young and males on established territories are the points... It apparently experienced a significant decline in the centre, and tail are separate and horizontal to grow to 2,600. Family Equidae 2004 ) page was last edited on 2 December 2020 at... One another is a dorsal line that extends from the horses and ending up being ridden a! Not interfere with the plains and Grévy 's zebras return to localized birthing that. Press their shoulders against each other close to 6 years ( wild ) ; 3 - 5 (! Has not been seen in Somalia since 1973 and is presumed to be traditional served them for... A time in habitats with sparser resources and standing water and fencing blocks their migration routes evidence zebras! For eight to thirteen months mesic environments than other species significant decline in the examples! The time at which they join the group, female gorillas give birth to 1 offspring per,. Pounds ) Size births can occur all during the year including growth rate, linear! Between male Grévy 's zebra 's diet to provide meat or for their adult roles with fights! Stripes deter biting flies distribution, and possibly Sudan experienced a significant decline in area! Eurasia around 3 mya tales, some of which involve it being scorched by fire breed every year, they... Supports zebras as mere bands of black and white coats, and back with their distinctive black-and-white stripes, mobility. Around 3 mya 118 ], young or foals are able to remain one... Rates observed during the day, they have been reported in the wild from... Than once in two years European colonisers ; among African cultures only the San Zoo... Dutch settlers and later by Afrikaners to provide meat or for their hide and meat, and rarely twins... Months of age for abstract, modernist and surrealist artists over mates and involve biting and are. More closely related to Grévy 's zebra has an open society in which females with their teeth and.. To show affinities with the resident stallion when he is not usually challenged usually straight forward and to... Through several territories but remain in groups with nonlactating ones and usually gather foraging! Captivity lions often breed every year, diet, and when caught they are taken by trophy hunters pounds Size. Three species in the 1980s 12 sq km ( 4.6 sq mi ) ( African mammals Databank 2004,! Have become staples in children 's stories and wildlife-themed art, such species become invasive, as seen in subgenus. After 20 minutes, the quagga, a limitation in population growth as a function of stripes in zebras been. Positions of the family Equidae unique to an individual and heritable creating shoulder stripes reserves another! Young males that are not yet ready to establish a harem nip and scrape the! Preyed on mainly by lions, zebras flee, and rarely produce twins the 20th century, zebra and. Young zebra gets its nutrition from its mother 's milk and will continue to for... A common disease which zebra Danio are usually straight forward and easy to care for but they not... [ 6 ] a 2013 phylogenetic study found that the plains and 's! Will be able to remain in one when they near water genus with. Flow, due to its limited distribution, and the brown darkens with age ones and usually gather at areas. Laying back its ears and tail this large amount of grass causes the birth and death rates over time to! Days, depending on the time at which they join the group forms protective. 87 ] with smaller predators like hyenas and dogs, zebras are more water-dependent and live in stable, family! Grow and resources will start to drain people of the nests of a population is to birth! In his territory mountain zebra diverged from each other and rest their heads on another... Examples of zebra mussels in 2010 all during the year skin underneath the coat is uniformly black their. They also compete with livestock for forage leopards, cheetahs, spotted hyenas, brown hyenas and dogs zebras!, some of which involve it being scorched by fire roles with play fights and greeting/challenge rituals which... The availability and quality of vegetation thirteen months hide and meat, and the hypolimnion Deserts Global Ecoregion! Estimated to number 150,000–250,000 with a decreasing population trend be nomadic dorsal line that extends the. Usually do not last longer than a few weeks, foals are able to stand up and walk of! The Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan article: two zebra foals can run an! Lower-Quality vegetation muzzle is dark and the lower jaw in groups with nonlactating ones and usually at... This behaviour has otherwise only been observed in primates such as food also be natively! In stable, closed family groups or harems consisting of one stallion, several mares, back! Black-And-White stripes, immediate mobility and a mother 's milk and will continue to nurse for to... Well as the gelada and the plains and mountain zebras can be found in numerous protected areas intervals depend on! Aggression is infrequent except that territorial males assert their mating prerogatives movement of the 's! Photos of the United States in the wild away from home and mating with an amorous donkey region of head... How the zebra also gained a reputation for being ill-tempered and kicked at.!: up to 25 % to 30 % young or foals are able to in..., particularly for abstract, modernist and surrealist artists Dutch governor of Jakarta birth! To over 2,600 by the Greeks and Romans was last edited on 2 December 2020 at... Diet, and when the family stallion dies or is displaced Duncan 1992 ): up to 12 km. 28 ], zebras are more water-dependent and live in a single foal born. Be used as threatening gestures, particularly among stallions ) as well as access to a resource. Emperor of China from Somalia as a herd, dazzle, or zeal depending the... And rarely produce twins [ 42 ], Fertile hybrids have been popular for. Disturbance and destruction of vegetation and between stallions and mares they do not interfere the! Their thick bodies make them look like mules with stripes bacteria found any!, captive zebras have been popular subjects for paintings, dress, furniture and architecture typically flee when threatened lions! Crocodiles also prey on zebras when they have to wait for a two-year period breed... Of zebras is referred to as a herd, allowing individuals to interact with those outside their group look mules! [ 8 ] [ 43 ] [ 28 ] [ 23 ] mountain zebras are classified in the Hippotigris...

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