While the Chinese lost their monopoly on silk production, they were able to re-establish themselves as major silk suppliers (during the Tang dynasty), and to industrialize their production on a large scale (during the Song dynasty). Origins of the Silk Surname. Silk was founded as Whitewave Foods in Boulder, Colorado in 1977 by Steve Demos, initially focusing on soy and tofu products. The Silk family name was found in the USA, the UK, Canada, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920. The Greek word for "silken" was σηρικός, from the name of the Seres (Σῆρες), according to Strabo the people from whom silk was first obtained. tended to expand. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the silk shortage in France reduced the price of importing Asian silk, particularly from China and Japan.. , With its recent economic reforms, the People's Republic of China has become the world's largest silk producer. The Siberian Ice Maiden discovered from the Pazyryk burials was found clad in a long crimson and white striped woolen skirt and white felt stockings. The term 'Silk Road' in a narrow sense refers to an ancient overland trade route formed in the Western Han Dynasty (202 BC – 9 AD). Free Name Report. The silk trade hit as far as the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, Europe, and North Africa. The Silk Road or Sichou Zhi Lu was actually an entire network of overland camel caravan routes connecting China to the Middle East and hence is now often referred to as the Silk Routes by historians. The species was identified as Bombyx mori, the domesticated silkworm. This route stretched 4,350 miles from Chang'an (today's Xi'an) to western China, central Asia, and even to Europe, enabling these regions to have better communications in diplomacy, business and culture. From 1801 embroidery became highly mechanized due to the effectiveness of the Jacquard loom. L. 103-182, 107 Stat. Joseph Needham, Francesca Bray, Hsing-Tsung Huang, Christian Daniels, Nicholas K. Menzies.  Italy managed to rebound from the crisis, but France was unable.  Other fragments have been recovered from royal tombs in the Shang dynasty (c. 1600 – c. 1046 BC).. Though silk was certainly the major trade item from China, many other goods were traded, and various technologies, religions and philosophies, as well as the bubonic plague (the "Black Death"), also traveled along the Silk Routes. Silk, bamboo, linen, wheat and rice straw were all used, and paper made with silk became the first type of luxury paper. Sassanid Persia controlled the trade of silk destined for Europe and Byzantium. The production and trade of silk can range from about 100,000 tons to 150,000 tons per annum.  Postwar Japan, through improvements in technology and a protectionist market policy, became the world's foremost exporter of raw silk, a position it held until the 1970s. About 1% of these are badges, 1% are key chains, and 1% are toothbrush. (Advanced Performance Textiles) - Developed by Texollini Inc., A.P.T. This trade appeared to be extremely considerable that the main set of trade routes between Europe and Asia came to be generally known as the Silk Road; and silk was definitely the main goods that traded on … The silkworms and mulberry leaves are placed on trays. Chinese sources claim the existence of a machine to unwind silkworm cocoons in 1090. When examined closely, many similarities between Eurasian machines can be drawn. Strabo 11.11.1, 15.1.34. His main objective was to reduce France's trade deficit with the Italian states, which caused France to lose 400,000 to 500,000 golden écus a year. England under Henry IV was also looking to develop a silk industry, but no opportunity arose until the revocation of the Edict of Nantes the 1680s, when hundreds of thousands of French Huguenots, many of whom were skilled weavers and experts in sericulture, began immigrating to England to escape religious persecution. The earliest surviving depiction of a European spinning wheel is a panel of stained glass in the Cathedral of Chartres.  First the Greeks, then the Romans began to speak of the Seres ("people of silk"), a term to designate the inhabitants of the far-off kingdom of China. According to André Guillou, mulberry trees for the production of raw silk were introduced to southern Italy by the Byzantines at the end of the ninth century. Hellenistic Greece appreciated the high quality of the Chinese goods and made efforts to plant mulberry trees and breed silkworms in the Mediterranean basin. In the 17th and 18th centuries, progress began to be made in the simplification and standardization of silk manufacture, with many advances following one after another.  The punched cards of the Jacquard loom were a direct precursor to the modern computer, in that they gave a (limited) form of programmability. , The Silk Road toward the west was opened by the Chinese in the 2nd century AD.  According to the Star Telegram and other news sources, Silk brand soy milk was made using organic soybeans switched to conventional soybeans while maintaining the same UPC barcodes and prices on the Silk products while replacing the word “organic” with “natural” on the Silk product packaging. [clarification needed] Silk has been a supporter of Farm Aid since 2002. nonabsorbable, monofilament, synthetic; nonabsorbable, multifilament, synthetic .  The continued rise in the importance of synthetic fibers and loosening of the protectionist economy contributed to the decline of Japan's silk industry, and by 1975 it was no longer a net exporter of silk. OatMilk: The Plain One, Vanilla, Zero Sugar, Oatmeal Cookie Creamer, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 13:10. Catherine Jolivet-Lévy et Jean-Pierre Sodini, "Byzance". "Soybean Sourcing and Production Program", "Green Power Leadership Awards 2008 Winners", http://fortune.com/2016/07/13/danone-whitewave-acquisition-2/, http://www.dairyreporter.com/Manufacturers/Danone-completes-acquisition-of-WhiteWave-to-create-DanoneWave, Twin Cities.com Pioneer Press, "Watchdog charges Target", "Grocers Irked to Find Out Soy Milk Not Organic", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Silk_(brand)&oldid=992090805, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2010, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Refrigerated soy milk: Vanilla, Original, Chocolate, Very Vanilla, DHA Omega-3, Organic Vanilla, Unsweet Vanilla, Organic Unsweetened, Plain Plus Omega-3 DHA(discontinued 2013), Light soy milk: Original, Vanilla, Chocolate.  He introduced a new kind of machine which was able to work the yarns faster and more precisely. It is quite possible for two people with the Silk last name to have been given that surname for entirely different reasons. The canuts occupied the city of Lyon, and would not relinquish it until a bloody repression by the army, led by Marshal Soult. The two other known works on silk from the Han period are lost. Paper was one of the greatest discoveries of ancient China. Starting at the end of the 14th century, no doubt on account of the devastation caused mid-century by the Black Death, there was a general shift towards less expensive techniques. There is an image of a silk spinning machine powered by a water wheel that dates to 1313. Having observed the life of the silkworm on the recommendation of her husband, the Yellow Emperor, she began to instruct her entourage in the art of raising silkworms - sericulture. The wealth that silk brought to China stirred envy in neighboring countries; beginning in the 2nd century BC, the Xiongnu people regularly pillaged the provinces of the Han Chinese for around 250 years. Plastic Trade Name Listings from A to Z For more info visit www.professionalplastics.com To Search, Click Ctrl + F A Tradename Material Manufacturer Aarolene PE, PS, PP Aaron Industries Aaroprene SBS, SEBS, TPV Aaron Industries Abifor ABS So.F.Ter S.p.A. Absoloy ABS/PBT Daicel Chemical Industries The import of Chinese silk resulted in vast amounts of gold leaving Rome, to such an extent that silk clothing was perceived as a sign of decadence and immorality. Even though some saw the development of a luxury product as useless, silk provoked such a craze among the high society that the rules in the Li Ji were used to limit its use to the members of the imperial family. Silk was founded as Whitewave Foods in Boulder, Colorado in 1977 by Steve Demos, initially focusing on soy and tofu products. Many things which would have earlier been completely forbidden by the guilds were now commonplace (using low-quality wool, carding, etc.). The earliest example of a woven silk fabric is from 3630 BC, and was used as wrapping for the body of a child. In 2013, WhiteWave Foods separated from Dean Foods, and became an independent, publicly traded company.  Wishing to extract it from her drink, the 14-year-old girl began to unroll the thread of the cocoon; seeing the long fibers that constituted the cocoon, the Empress decided to weave some of it, and so kept some of the cocoons to do so. The synthesis of aniline was used to make mauveine (aniline purple) dye and the synthesis of quinine was used to make indigo dye. Muthesius, Anna, "Silk in the Medieval World". New weaving technologies, however, increased the efficiency of production. An illustration of spinning, winding, doubling, and throwing machines used in silk textile production in England, 1858.  The acquisition was completed in April 2017 and newly formed company is named DanoneWave, In the fall of 2009 the Pioneer Press reported that the Cornucopia Institute had made complaints to the U.S. Department of Agriculture accusing Silk producer Dean Foods and its WhiteWave Foods division, of shifting their products away from organics without properly notifying retailers or consumers. Even after the war, silk was not able to regain many of the markets lost, though it remained an expensive luxury product. Though silk was exported to foreign countries in great amounts, sericulture remained a secret that the Chinese carefully guarded; consequently, other cultures developed their own accounts and legends as to the source of the fabric. BRAUN’S IPL Silk Expert Pro 5 has been reduced by a huge £341 as part of Amazon’s Black Friday sale. In 1519, Emperor Charles V formally recognized the growth of the industry of Catanzaro by allowing the city to establish a consulate of the silk craft, charged with regulating and check in the various stages of a production that flourished throughout the sixteenth century.  However, silk centers still operate today. The kinds of products exported from China during the at-least-3,000-year history of the Silk Road changed over time, but silk was generally the most precious export. English: from a medieval personal name, a back-formation from Silkin (see Sill). In order to achieve more commercial profit, they had their adventure and long journey. After the start of the Crusades, techniques of silk production began to spread across Western Europe. A trade name is the official name under which an individual as a sole proprietor or a company chooses to do business.  Bobbins and warping machines appear together in the stained glass at Chartres and in a fresco in the Cologne Kunkelhaus (ca 1300). Trade Name . Silk went westward, and wools, gold, and silver went east. Japanese production is now marginal, at only 2500 tonnes. Treatises on many subjects, including meteorology, medicine, astrology, divinity, and even maps written on silk have been discovered. As a result of the spread of sericulture, Chinese silk exports became less important, although they still maintained dominance over the luxury silk market. During the Second World War, silk supplies from Japan were cut off, so western countries were forced to find substitutes. The sudden boom of the silk industry in the Italian state of Lucca, starting in the 11th and 12th centuries was due to much Sicilian, Jewish, and Greek settlement, alongside many other immigrants from neighboring cities in southern Italy. Thousand of workers, the canuts, devoted themselves to the flourishing industry. ... Wretched flocks of maids labor so that the adulteress may be visible through her thin dress, so that her husband has no more acquaintance than any outsider or foreigner with his wife's body. ", In China, silkworm farming was originally restricted to women, and many women were employed in the silk-making industry. Silk fibers are woven into different types of silk fabrics and weaves. He had sent two Nestorian monks to Central Asia, and they were able to smuggle silkworm eggs to him hidden in rods of bamboo.  The Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of the civilizations of China, India, Ancient Egypt, Persia, Arabia, and Ancient Rome. The craftsmen in Italy proved unable to keep up with the exigencies of French fashion, which continuously demanded lighter and less expensive materials. By the same token that one would sometimes estimate the price of products according to a certain weight of gold, the length of the silk cloth became a monetary standard in China (in addition to bronze coins). "La Soie, 4000 ans de luxe et de volupté". , The military payrolls tell us that soldiers were paid in bundles of plain silk textiles, which circulated as currency in Han times. The start of the Industrial Revolution was marked by a massive boom in the textile industry, with remarkable technological innovations made, led by the cotton industry of Great Britain.  This belief was affirmed by Seneca the Elder in his work Phaedra, and by Virgil in his work Georgics. It was used as the generic name for fabrics produced using variants of that process until 1924, when the holders of Cross’s patent petitioned in the US to have the name restricted to their process, and the actual viscous liquid, which could also be used to make cellophane. Mersilen (uncoated) Ethibond (coated) nonabsorbable, multifilament, synthetic; nonabsorbable, multifilament, synthetic . Developments in manufacturing technique also began to take place during the Middle Ages (5th to 15th centuries) in Europe, with devices such as the spinning wheel first appearing at this time.
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